WASHINGTON—President Trump released initiatives meant to punish China for tightening management above Hong Kong and for misdeeds from espionage to its managing of the coronavirus pandemic, in moves very likely to compound a tense rivalry with Beijing.

The actions Mr. Trump introduced Friday include things like withdrawing from the Entire world Well being Organization, suspending entry to the U.S. by Chinese nationals deemed protection risks to American scientific study and scrutinizing Chinese corporations outlined on U.S. markets.